English Grammar Exercises: February 2021

Friday, February 26, 2021

Used To


Used to is used to express habits in the past.

Examples

  • This is Jack. He gave up smoking two years ago. He no longer smokes. But he used to smoke. He used to smoke 40 cigarettes a day.
He used to smoke means that he smoked regularly for some time in the past, but he doesn't smoke now :

We use used to with the infinitive (used to do/ used to smoke etc.) to say that something regularly happened in the past but no longer happens. Let's see the following examples :
  • I used to play tennis a lot, but now I'm too lazy.
  • Do you go to the cinema very often?'  'Not now, but I used to.'

We also use used to for past situations (which no longer exist). Let's see the following examples :

  • we used to live in a small village but now we live in Jakarta.
  • This building is now a furniture shop. It used to be a cinema

Used to + infinitive is always past. There is no present. You
cannot say   'I use to do'.  For the present ' use the present simple (I do). Let's see the following examples !

 Past Present
 He used to smoke.
 I used to live.
 There used to be ....
 He smokes.
 I  live.
 There is .....


The normal question form is did ... use to ...? Let's see the following examples :

  • Did you use to eat a lot of sweets when you were a child?
The negative form is didn't use to ... (or  'used not to'). Let's see the following examples :

  • Jack didn't use to go  out very often until he met Jane.
Be careful not to confuse I used to do and I am used to doing. Structures and meanings are different. Let's see the following examples !
  • I used  to live alone . (= I lived alone but no longer live alone.)
  • I am used to living alone .(= I live alone and don't find it strange or new because I've been living alone for some time.)

Used to Exercises

Used to Exercises


Exercise I

Complete the sentences below with used to  and a correct word!

  1. Your mother doesn't cry so much now but she ................ every day before you came back .
  2. She ................... my  girlfriend but now I am married to someone else.
  3. We live in Bandung now but we ............... in Jakarta.
  4. Now there's only one woman in my heart but there.............. three.
  5. When I was a child I ................. football, but I don't like it now.

Exercise II

Use your imagination to complete the table describing Jack's habit at twenties and at sixties. Use the phrases provided. Number 1 has been done for you.
get up early, work in an office, go to night clubs, sing rock songs, travel a lot, have a lot of meetings, smoke, go to bed early, have lunch out, spend a lot of time with friends

 At Twenties  (the past)       At Sixties (now)
1. He used to get up early.
2. 
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.


1. He gets up late.



Answer

Exercise I

  1. Your mother doesn't cry so much now but she used to cry   every day before you came back.
  2. She used to be my girlfriend but now I am married to someone else.
  3. We live in Bandung now but we used to live  in Jakarta.
  4. Now there's only one woman in my heart but there used to be three.
  5. When I was a child I used to play   football, but I don't like it now.

Exercise II


 At Twenties  (the past)       At Sixties (now)
1. He used to get up early.
2. He used to work in an office.
3. He used to go to night clubs.
4. He used to sing rock songs.
5. He used to travel a lot. 
6. He used to have a lot of meeting.
7. He used to smoke.
8. He never used to go to bed early.
9. He used to have lunch out.
10. He used to spend a lot of time with friends.


1. He gets up late.

2. He doesn't work anymore.
3. He stays at home at night.
4. He doesn't sing any songs.
5. He stays at home a lot.
6. He hardly has a meeting.
7. He doesn't smoke.
8. He goes to bed early.
9. He has lunch at home.
10. He spends a lot of time with his wife.

 



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Used To + Ing

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I'm used to something = it is not new or strange for me. Let's see the following examples.
  • Igor lives alone. He doesn't mind this because he has lived alone for 15 years. So he is used to it. He is used to living alone.
  • My new shoes felt a bit strange at first because I wasn't used to them.
  • Our new flat is on a very busy street. I expect we'll get used to the noise but at the moment we find it very disturbing.
  • Fred has a new job. He has to get up much earlier at 6.00.  He find this difficult at present because he isn't used to getting up so early .
  • Igor is used to living alone. (not Igor is used to live alone.)

The Difference Between used to + infinitive  and used to + ing/something.

Do not confuse I am used to doing  with I used to do. They are different in structure and in meaning. to be  used to + ing means isn't strange for me.
  • I am used to (doing)something.
  • I am used to the weather in this country
  • I am used to driving on the left because I've lived in Britain for a long time.

I used to do something means that I did something regularly in the past.  You can 't use this structure for the present.  Let's see the following examples.
  • These days I usually stay in bed until late. But when I had a job, I used to get up early.
  • When I was single, I used to walk very fast. Now I don't. My wife walks very slowly.

Used To Ing Exercises

Used To Ing Exercises


Exercise I

Choose the correct words/phrases in the bracket.
  1. When I was a child, ( I used to go, I am used to going ) swimming in the river.
  2. Johny once went to Alaska. It was too cold for him. ( He was not used to living, He didn't use to live ) in cold temperature.
  3. I'm American. ( I'm used to driving, I used to drive ) on the right.
  4. My best friend ( is used to drinking , used to drink ) tea when he was a child.
  5. I ( am used to, used to ) the weather in this country. So, I feel comfortable with it.
  6. When my father was young, he (used to, was used to) be rock singer.
  7. He's the boss. He isn't used to (be, being) told what to do.
  8. It takes a while for people to get used to (live, living) in a new way.
  9. There used to (be, being) a popular cinema by the supermarket but it was bankrupt a few years ago.
  10. I (am used to loving, used to love) her but now I don't since she betrayed me.

Exercise II

Write a sentence with be/get used to based on the situation provided. Use the word in the bracket.
Example: 
Teddy lives in a big city. He's okay with it. He has lived in the city for a long time. (live) _____________________________
Teddy is used to living in a big city.
  1. Ben lives alone. He doesn't mind it. He's been single all his life.  (live) ____________________________________
  2. Yanto went to Oslo last year. It was too cold for him. (cold weather)       ____________________________________
  3. Michael has just got a job. He never gets up early. (get up)    ____________________________________
  4. Ann has no problem driving on the left. She has lived in Britain a long time. (drive)         ____________________________________
  5. Pinto never lives in a small village. He's not happy with a quiet life. (live)        ____________________________________

Answer

Exercise I

  1. I used
  2. He wasn't used to living
  3. I'm used to driving
  4. used to drink
  5. am used to
  6. used to
  7. being
  8. living
  9. be
  10. used to love

Exercise II

Different answers are possible.
  1. Ben is used to living alone.
  2. Yanto is not used to (living in) cold weather.
  3. Michael is not used to getting up early.
  4. Ann is used to driving on the left.
  5. Pinto is not used to living in a small village.






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Adjectives Ending In -ing and -ed

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Adjectives ending in -ing and -ed have different meaning. Let's see the following examples:

Sue has been doing the same job for a very long time. Every day she does exactly the same thing again and again. She doesn't enjoy it any more and would like to do something different.

Sue's job is boring.
Sue is bored ( with her job).

Someone is -ed if something (or someone) is ing. or, if something is -ing, it makes you -ed. So:

Sue is bored because her job is boring.
Sue's job is boring, so Sue is bored. ( not ' Sue is boring')

Someone is interested because something  ( or someone) is interesting.
Paul is interested in music.  (not  'interesting in music')
Paul finds music interesting.
Are you interested in buying the house?
Did you meet anyone interesting at the party?

Someone is surprised because something is surprising.

Everyone was surprised that the boy could lift up that heavy stone.
It was quite surprising that the boy could lift up that heavy stone.

Someone is disappointed because something is disappointing.

The coach was disappointed with the team's performance. He expected it to play much better.
The team's performance was disappointing. The coach expected it to play much better.

Someone is tired because something is tiring.
He is always very tired when he gets home from work.
He has a very tiring job.

For your reference, we provide you with the most popular adjectives ending in 'ing' and 'ed'.

fascinating                   
exciting                  
amusing
amazing
astonishing
shocking
disgusting
embarrassing
confusing
horrifying
terrifying
frightening
depressing
worrying
annoying
exhausting
satisfying
fascinated
excited
amused
amazed
astonished
shocked
disgusted
embarrassed
confused
horrified
horrified
frightened
depressed
worried
annoyed
exhausted
satisfied

Adjective Ending in ed and ing Exercise

Choose the right adjective in the bracket.
  1. The room has not been cleaned. It is ( disgusting, disgusted).
  2. Are you ( interesting, interested ) in politics?
  3. We have played tennis for two hours so we are ( tiring, tired ) now.
  4. If you do the same thing every day, you will feel ( boring, bored ).
  5. I'm going to Alaska for the first time. I'm very ( exciting, excited ) about it.
  6. I have to work for 12 hours a day. This job is really ( exhausting, exhausted ). 
  7. The audience were ( amusing, amused ). The joker was really funny.
  8. Borrowing money from people is ( embarrassing, embarrassed ) to me.
  9. The Krakatoa eruption in 1884 was ( horrifying, horrified ). Thousands of people died in minutes.
  10. The boy was ( frightened, frightening ) of the sound of the thunder. He kept on crying.

Answer

  1. The room has not been cleaned. It is disgusting.
  2. Are you interested  in politics?
  3. We have played tennis for two hours so we are tired now.
  4. If you do the same thing every day, you will feel bored.
  5. I'm going to Alaska for the first time. I'm very excited  about it.
  6. I have to work for 12 hours a day. This job is really exhausting. 
  7. The audience were amused. The joker was really funny.
  8. Borrowing money from people is embarrassing to me.
  9. The Krakatoa eruption in 1884 was horrifying. Thousands of people died in minutes.
  10. The boy was frightened of the sound of the thunder. He kept on crying.










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Adjectives To Infinitive

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Adjectives to infinitive


We can use adjectives to infinitive in  two ways. Let's see both of them.

  1. It is difficult to understand  her.
  2. She's difficult to understand.
Here are the adjectives we can use in the pattern above.
  • difficult
  • easy 
  • impossible
  • hard
  • interesting
  • impossible
  • safe
Let's see some more examples.
  1. His idea is almost impossible to do. It is almost impossible to do his idea.
  2. This leaf is safe to eat. It is safe to eat this leaf.
  3. Sue is very interesting to talk to. It is very interesting to talk to Sue.

To Infinitive After Ordinal Numbers

We use to + infinitive after ordinal numbers (the first, the second, the third etc.)  and also after the next and the last. Let's see the following examples.
  1. Who was the first  man to walk on the moon?
  2. She's the last girl to stay in my heart.


Expressing Someone's Feeling About Something

We can use to + infinitive after the following adjectives to say how someone feels about something.
  • happy 
  • glad
  • pleased
  • sad
  • disappointed
  • relieved
  • amazed
  • astonished
Let's see the following examples.
  1. I am sorry to hear that your son is ill.
  2. She was surprised to find her lost kitten.
  3. His parents were disappointed to see his bad performance.

Adjectives Of Someone To Do Something

The structure (it is) nice of someone to do something is possible after the following adjectives.
  • nice
  • kind
  • mean
  • stupid
  • silly
  • clever
  • polite
  • careless
  • generous
Let's see the following examples.
  1. It was nice of you to bring me these beautiful flowers. Thank you very much.
  2. It was careless of Akhmad to drive the car beyond the speed limit.
  3. It's stupid of him to leave that smart beautiful girl.
  4. It was very generous of you to lend us the money. 

Exercise I

In this exercise you have to write sentences in another way.
Example   : It is difficult to understand her.
You write : She is difficult to understand.
  1. It was very difficult to ride this motorcycle.
  2. It is safe to drink this water.
  3. It is difficult to explain some grammatical rules.
  4. It is difficult to find a good government employee in this country.
  5. It is not easy to abolish corruption.

Exercise II

In this exercise you have to make sentences using the word in the bracket. 
Example    :   John offered to help me. ( kind )
You write  :   It was kind of John to offer to help me.
  1. You make the same mistake. (careless)
  2. Jane gave me a birthday gift. (nice)
  3. He makes a phone call while he drives. (careless)
  4. I told her I had another girl. (stupid)

Exercise III

In this exercise you have to make sentences using the word the first or  the last.
Example   : I found the boy on the street last night. Nobody found him before.
You write : I was the first person to find boy on the street last night.

  1. Neil Armstrong walked on the moon. Nobody walked on the moon before.
  2. He reigned the kingdom. Nobody reigned the kingdom anymore.
  3. He saw the lost boy. Nobody saw the boy anymore.

Answer

Exercise I

  1. This motorcycle is very difficult to ride.
  2. This water is safe to drink.
  3. Some grammatical rules are difficult to explain.
  4. A good government employee is difficult to find in this country.
  5. Corruption is not easy to abolish.

Exercise II

  1. It is careless of you to make the same mistake.
  2. It was nice of Jane to give me a birthday present.
  3. It is careless of him to make a phone call while he drives.
  4. It was stupid of me to tell her I had another girl.

Exercise III

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Adjective Word Order

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We use adjective to modify nouns. But, sometimes we use use two or more adjectives together to modify one noun. In this case, we have to know which adjective comes first and which one comes later.  Let's see the following examples.
  • Don lives in a nice new house.
  • There were four beautiful small square wooden chair in the living room.

Opinion And Fact Adjectives

We usually divide adjective into two parts; one is  opinion adjectives and the latter is  fact adjectives.
Adjectives like new, large,  round,  wooden are fact adjectives. They give us objective information about something (age, size etc.). Adjectives like nice, beautiful are opinion adjectives.  Opinion adjectives usually go before fact adjectives. Let's see the following tables.

  Opinion Adjectives Fact Adjectives Noun
a
a
an
a
nice
delicious
intelligent
beautiful
sunny
hot
young
large square wooden
day
chili sauce
man
chair

Fact Adjective Order

Sometimes we use two or more fact adjectives to modify one noun. Very often (but not always) we put fact adjectives in this order.

  Size Age Color Origin Material Noun
a

a
a
an
a
tall
big
small
large
 young



old
new

brown
blue


white




Norwegian


plastic
wooden

cotton
man
eyes
bag
table
song
shirt

Adjectives of Size, Length, Shape, And Width

Adjectives of size and length (big / small / slim / tall / short / long etc.) usually go before adjectives of shape and width (round / fat / thin / wide etc.). Let's see the following example.
  • a large round table  
  • a short fat girl
  • a long winding road
  • a small new house

Adjective Word Order Exercise

Put the adjectives in the bracket into the correct position. Example : a beautiful chair (wooden round)

You write   : a beautiful round wooden chair

  1. a good-looking man ( young ) .........

  2. a sunny day ( lovely ) .........

  3. a beautiful ring ( gold ) .........

  4. an old man ( ugly ) .......

  5. a modern house ( expensive ) ......

  6. a red car ( old/little ) .....

  7. long hair ( dark/beautiful )....

  8. a metal box ( red / big ) .....

  9. an English film ( old ) .......

  10. a beautiful wife ( young/Russian ) .....



Answer

  1. a good-looking man ( young )  👉 a good-looking young man

  2. a sunny day ( lovely ) ......... 👉   a lovely sunny day

  3. a beautiful ring ( gold ) .........   👉 a beautiful gold ring

  4. an old man ( ugly ) .......  👉 an ugly old man

  5. a modern house ( expensive ) ...... 👉 an expensive modern house

  6. a red car ( old/little ) ..... 👉 a little old red car

  7. long hair ( dark/beautiful ).... 👉 beautiful long dark hair

  8. a metal box ( red / big ) ..... 👉 a big red metal box

  9. an English film ( old ) ....... 👉 an old English film

  10. a beautiful wife ( young/Russian ) ….. 👉 a beautiful young Russian wife




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